32nd IGC - Florence, 2004
THE ROLES OF THE RIVER VALLEYS IN THE LIFE OF THE KÖRÖS CULTURE IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN
SÜMEGI PÁL 1, TIMÁR GÁBOR 2, HERBICH KATALIN 1, MOLNÁR SÁNDOR 1
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1 - UNIVERSITY OF SZEGED, DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY
2 - SPACE RESEARCH GROUP, DEPT. OF GEOPHYSICS OF EÖTVÖS UNIVERSITY OF BUDAPEST
The central part of the Carpathian Basin constitutes a very important transitory region between the environments of the Balkan Peninsula and the western part of Europe, which significantly differ from one another even at macro-level. These environmental differences were already present during the Holocene and basically determined the life of the Mesolithic and Neolithic groups. In the above-mentioned area, there was a Central European-Balkanic agroecological barrier in the Early Neolithic, determined the settlement and expansion possibilities of the Early Neolithic Körös-Starčevo culture, which had cultural and economic roots in the Balkan Peninsula. The same barrier played an essential role in the neolithization process of the Late Mesolithic communities in the northern part of the Carpathian Basin, in the development of the autochthonous Linear Pottery culture already independent of Balkanic roots. In this area, which was transitory from the aspect of landscape, climate, flora and soil, we not only have to take into consideration an environmental shift due to the increase in elevation above sea level, but also pay attention to the effect of meso- and micro-level mosaicity. The Pleistocene lag surfaces, "loessy islands" and the alluvial plains that are the result of differing geological evolution can be characterized with different individual subsoil and landscape conditions. These differing meso- and micro-environmental conditions altered and modified the settlement strategy of the Körös culture in the Early Neolithic. Thus the temporary settlement are found in the alluvial plain, however the permanent settlements are found in the pleistocene lag surfaces. Due to various environmental factors (hidrology, pedology, morfology, vegetation and fauna) the people farmed diverse method too.
ACCEPTED as Poster Presentation
in session: "G03.01 - Function of soils for human societies and the environment"